Reference [7]
Category Urine ACR
(mcg of albumin/mg of creatinine)
Normal < 30
Microalbuminuria 30 - 299
Macroalbuminuria ≥ 300




ALT value (U/L) Range
7 - 56 Normal
> 56 Elevated




Reference [28]
Positive ANA serum dilution % of healthy individuals with positive ANA at this dilution
1:40 32%
1:80 13%
1:160 5%
  • JIA - juvenile idiopathic arthritis; MCTD - mixed connective tissue disease; SLE - systemic lupus erythematosus; SS - Sjögren’s syndrome; SSc - systemic sclerosis; UCTD - undifferentiated connective tissue disease; IM - inflammatory myopathies; DM - dermatomyositis; PBC - primary biliary cirrhosis
  • Reference [28]
ANA pattern Associated condition
Nuclear patterns
Homogenous SLE, drug induced SLE/vasculitis, JIA
Coarse speckled MCTD, SLE, Raynaud, SSc, SS, UCTD
Fine speckled SLE, SS, SSc, IM, MCTD
Centromere SSc (limited), Raynaud’s
Nucleolar SSc, Raynaud’s, IM, overlap
Cytoplasmic patterns
Diffuse SLE, IM
Fine speckled IM, DM, PBC, interstitial lung disease



AST value (U/L) Range
5 - 35 Normal
> 35 Elevated





  • Reference [20]
BNP value Heart failure
≤ 100 pg/ml Heart failure unlikely
> 100 pg/ml Heart failure more likely

  • Reference [20]
NT-proBNP value Heart failure
≤ 300 pg/ml Heart failure unlikely
> 300 pg/ml Heart failure more likely

  • Reference [20]
Differences between NT-proBNP and BNP
Half-life Clearance
BNP 22 minutes Endopeptidase
NT-proBNP 60 - 120 minutes Renal


  • Reference [20]
Factors that may affect BNP and NT-proBNP values
Factor Comment
Age
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels increase naturally with age
Female sex
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels are higher in females
Kidney disease
  • BNP and NT-proBNP may be elevated in patients with kidney disease
  • Levels begin to rise with CrCl < 60 ml/min
  • NT-proBNP levels may be more sensitive to kidney disease
Diastolic heart failure
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels may be elevated in patients with diastolic heart failure
Acute coronary syndrome
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels may be elevated in patients with acute coronary syndrome even in the absence of heart failure
Pulmonary disease
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels may be elevated in pulmonary diseases including ARDS, severe COPD, pulmonary embolism, and primary pulmonary hypertension
Atrial fibrillation
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels may be elevated in atrial fibrillation without heart failure
Obesity
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels may be lower in obese patients
  • In one study, a BNP of > 54 pg/ml was 90% sensitive for heart failure in patients with a BMI ≥ 35
Previous heart failure
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels may be elevated in patients with a history of heart failure who do not have acute symptoms of volume overload
High output states
  • BNP and NT-proBNP levels may be elevated in high output states (e.g. sepsis, cirrhosis, hyperthyroidism)


  • Reference [23]
CRP normal value (mg/L))
0 - 4.9


  • Reference [21,22]
Causes of elevated CRP
Infection
Inflammatory conditions
(e.g. Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, giant cell arteritis)
Pregnancy
Cancer
Medications
(oral contraceptives, estrogens)
Obesity



Child-Pugh Score
Finding 1 2 3
Encephalopathy
(see encephalopathy staging below)
None 1 and 2 3 and 4
Ascites Absent Slight Moderate
Bilirubin(mg/dl)* < 2 2 - 3 > 3
Albumin (g/dl) > 3.5 2.8 - 3.5 < 2.8
Prothrombin time (PT)
(seconds prolonged)

OR
< 4 4 - 6 > 6
INR < 1.7 1.7 - 2.3 > 2.3


Bilirubin (mg/dl) Child-Pugh score
< 4 1
4 - 10 2
> 10 3

  • Reference [13]
  • Surgical mortality based on 12-year study published in 1997 involving abdominal surgery [17]
TOTAL SCORE CHILD-PUGH CLASS EXPECTED MORTALITY
5 - 6 A 5-year survival 90%
Surgical mortality 10%
7 - 9 B 5-year survival 80%
Surgical mortality 32%
≥ 10 C More than 33% die within one year
Surgical mortality 82%

    Reference [14,15]
    Stage Mental status Neuro exam EEG findings
    0 normal normal none
    1 mild confusion sleep disturbance slight tremor normal to slightly normal
    2 disoriented abnormal behavior significant tremor coordination problems abnormal
    3 confused, incoherent excessive sleep muscle rigidity positive Babinski abnormal
    4 coma none abnormal




    • Category 1 if kidney damage is present
    • NKF - National Kidney Foundation
    GFR (ml/min) Degree of kidney disease NKF stages
    ≥ 90 Normal 1
    60 - 89 Mild 2
    44 - 59 Moderate 3a
    30 - 44 Moderate 3b
    15 - 29 Severe 4
    < 15 Kidney failure 5


    • Reference [26]
    • Normal range may vary by lab and may only be reported as positive or negative
    Anti-CCP value Range
    < 20 units negative
    20 - 39 units weak positive
    40 - 59 units moderate positive
    > 59 units strong positive



    • Any value above these ranges is considered elevated
    • Reference [23]
    Patient population ESR normal values
    (mm/hr)
    Male 0 - 50 years 0 - 15
    Male ≥ 50 years 0 - 30
    Female 0 - 50 years 0 - 32
    Female ≥ 50 years 0 - 40


    • Reference [21]
    Causes of elevated ESR
    Infection
    Inflammatory conditions
    (e.g. Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, giant cell arteritis)
    Anemia
    Pregnancy
    Advanced age
    Immune disorders
    (e.g. multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia)
    Menstruation
    Medications
    (oral contraceptives, methyldopa, theophylline)
    Vitamin A
    Fatty liver
    Obesity

    Reference [1,2]
    EF value Interpretation
    > 50% Normal
    40 - 50% Decreased, but does not typically cause symptoms
    < 35% Significant decrease in EF





    • Reference [18]
    Grade (Rankin score) Symptoms
    0 No symptoms at all
    1 No significant disability: despite symptoms, able to carry out all usual duties and activities
    2 Slight disability: unable to perform all previous activities but able to look after own affairs without assistance
    3 Moderate disability: requiring some help but able to walk without assistance
    4 Moderately severe disability: unable to walk without assistance and unable to attend to own bodily needs without assistance
    5 Severe disability: bedridden, incontinent and requiring constant nursing care and attention
    6 Death



    Reference [10]
    NYHA class Symptoms
    I No limitation of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does not result in symptoms.
    II Slight limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but ordinary activity results in fatigue, palpitations, or shortness of breath.
    III Marked limitation of activity. Comfortable at rest, but less than ordinary activity results in fatigue, palpitations, or shortness of breath.
    IV Symptoms at rest. Unable to carry on any physical activity without discomfort. Any physical activity results in discomfort.


    • One milliquivalent (mEq) of potassium is equal to one millimole (mmol)
    • References [29, Manufacturer's PI]
    Elemental potassium content in potassium supplements (mEq of K+ per mg)
    Potassium source Conversion ratio
    (mEq of K+ per mg)
    Elemental potassium (K+) 1 mEq = 39 mg
    Potassium chloride (KCL) 1 mEq = 75 mg
    Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) 1 mEq = 100 mg
    Potassium citrate (K2C6H5O7*H2O) 1 mEq ∼ 36 mg
    Potassium gluconate (KC6H11O7) 1 mEq ∼ 230 - 250 mg


    • Reference: USDA food database
    Approximate potassium content of select foods
    Food Potassium content
    (mEq of elemental K+ per 100 gram or 100 ml)
    FRUITS
    Apricots, dried 30 mEq (1162 mg)
    Prunes, dehydrated, uncooked 27 mEq (1058 mg)
    Raisins, seedless 19 mEq (749 mg)
    Plums, dried, uncooked 19 mEq (732 mg)
    Dates, medjool 18 mEq (696 mg)
    Avocados, raw 13 mEq (507 mg)
    Bananas, raw 9 mEq (358 mg)
    Orange juice 5 mEq (208 mg)
    Grapefruit juice 4 mEq (142 mg)
    VEGETABLES
    Yam, cooked, boiled, drained, or baked 17 mEq (670 mg)
    Spinach, fresh 14 mEq (558 mg)
    Parsley, fresh 14 mEq (554 mg)
    Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, baked 14 mEq (544 mg)
    Mushrooms, Chanterelle, raw 13 mEq (506 mg)
    Beets, cooked, boiled 8 mEq (305 mg)
    Carrots, raw 8 mEq (320 mg)
    Mushrooms, Shiitake, raw 8 mEq (304 mg)
    Tomatoes, raw, red, ripe 6 mEq (237 mg)
    Radishes, raw 6 mEq (233 mg)
    NUTS AND SEEDS
    Pistachio nuts, dry roasted 26 mEq (1007 mg)
    Pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted 20 mEq (788 mg)
    Sunflower seed kernels, dry roasted 22 mEq (850 mg)
    Almonds, dry roasted 18 mEq (713 mg)
    Brazil nuts, dried 17 mEq (659 mg)
    Cashews, dry roasted 14 mEq (565 mg)
    Walnuts, English 11 mEq (441 mg)
    Pecans 11 mEq (410 mg)
    BEANS
    Soybeans, mature, boiled 13 mEq (515 mg)
    Lima beans, mature, boiled 13 mEq (508 mg)
    Black beans, mature, boiled 9 mEq (355 mg)
    Chickpeas (garbanzo beans), mature seeds, boiled 7 mEq (291 mg)
    Peas, green, raw 6 mEq (244 mg)
    Beans, snap, green, raw 5 mEq (211 mg)
    DAIRY PRODUCTS
    Yogurt, low fat, plain 6 mEq (234 mg)
    Milk, 2% 5 mEq (182 mg)
    Egg, whole, cooked, omelet 3 mEq (117 mg)
    Cheese, cheddar 2 mEq (76 mg)
    BEEF
    Beef, round cut, pan fried 12 mEq (484 mg)
    Beef, tenderloin steak, grilled 11 mEq (443 mg)
    Beef, ground, 90% lean meat, pan-browned 11 mEq (433 mg)
    Beef, top sirloin steak, broiled 10 mEq (380 mg)
    Beef, rib, roasted 8 mEq (319 mg)
    Beef, brisket, braised 7 mEq (275 mg)
    POULTRY
    Chicken, breast, grilled 11 mEq (420 mg)
    Turkey, breast, roasted 6 mEq (249 mg)
    FISH
    Mahimahi, cooked, dry heat 14 mEq (533 mg)
    Trout, cooked, dry heat 12 mEq (463 mg)
    Salmon, coho, wild, cooked, moist heat 12 mEq (455 mg)
    Tuna, white, canned in water 6 mEq (237 mg)
    Potassium (K+)
    (meq/L)
    Range
    < 3.0 Decreased
    3.0 - 3.4 Mild - moderate decrease
    3.5 - 5.0 Normal
    5.1- 6.0 Mild - moderate elevation
    > 6.0 Elevated




    • Reference [23]
    • Normal range varies by lab
    RF value Range
    ≤ 14 IU/ml negative
    > 14 IU/ml positive



    Serum creatinine (mg/dl) Range
    ≤ 1.2 Normal
    1.3 - 1.5 Mild-to-moderate elevation
    > 1.5 Significant elevation