likelihood formulas





nri formula







odds ratio conversion



Surrogate endpoint Related significant clinical outcome
Cholesterol levels heart attack, stroke, mortality
blood pressure heart attack, stroke, mortality
carotid intima thickness heart attack and stroke
Hemoglobin A1C level diabetes complications





Reference [1]
p-value Significance
0.01 ≤ p < 0.05 significant
0.001 ≤ p < 0.01 highly significant
p < 0.001 very highly significant
p > 0.05 not significant
0.05 ≤ p < 0.10 trend towards significance




predictive value formula






























confounding indication



























    What is PMID?    PI = Manufacturer's Package Insert